The first exportation of coffee took place in 1802, according to data published in the External Commerce of Mexico, by Don Miguel Lerdo de Tejada. In the 1980’s, organic production was initiated and nowadays the organic production of coffee is a big sector in the Mexican coffee industry.
Ease of access and abundance of quality coffee has turned buyer’s interest towards Mexico in the recent years. This has helped elevate Mexico’s status from “blender” coffee to single-source and organic specialty offerings. Mexico is gaining new attention for its single origin, Fair-Trade and organic coffees. Some of this is due to the Mexican Coffee Council, which has been working to increase Mexican coffee’s reputation by implementing an official quality certification program.
The National Coffee Institute of Mexico (INMECAFE) was formed in 1973 to provide technical assistance and a source of credit for producers. As a result, coffee production grew at a rapid pace in the countryside. Throughout the 1970’s and 1980’s, the Mexican government heavily promoted coffee production to indigenous farmers, particularly in the lush southern area of the country. By 1991, Mexico had become the fourth largest producer in the world, and coffee was hugely important to the economy of the country. That boom was followed by a bust. The end of the cartel-like price controls put in place by the International Coffee Organization (ICO) and a loss of support by the Mexican government led to chaos in the coffee sector. INMECAFE was dismantled and producers suddenly found themselves struggling to find buyers for their coffee. Indigenous producers were among the hardest hit. Production and quality fell dramatically during this period known as “the coffee crisis.”
Size: 1.964 million km²
Capital City: Mexico City
Population: 127.5 million
Average farm size: Less than 25 hectares
Annual production: 3.9 million bags
Bags exported annually: 2 million bags
Annual domestic consumption: 2 million bags
Growing regions: Main; Chiapas, Veracruz, Puebla, Oaxaca. Other; Guerrero, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi, Nayarit, Colima, Jalisco, Queretaro and Tabasco
Varieties: 90% Arabica; Bourbon, Typica, Caturra, Mundo Novo, Maragogype, Catimor, Catuai and Garnica. 10% Robusta.
Processing Methods: Washed
Bag Size: 69 kg
Harvest Period: November to March
Shipment Period: January to July